Current Technologies For On-Line Monitoring of Drinking Water Distribution Systems
Increased risks of drinking water contamination are incentives for implementation of improved monitoring approaches for pathogens in drinking water distribution systems. However, indirect measurements such as pH, and turbidity to detect pathogens do not guarantee the safety of drinking water because pathogens, and especially protozoa and viruses, are not well correlated to these indirect measures. Routine methods for culturing indicator micro-organisms need considerable time and hence do not provide significant value for real-time monitoring efforts. Review of currently available technologies (spectral fluorescence laser technology, image processing technology, multi-angle light scattering laser technology, on-line chemical characterization system, decision support monitoring system, and rapid response tests for total micro-organisms and toxicity) for real-time and/or rapid pathogen
detection, demonstrates there is no single instrument currently available. The most effective approach currently available is demonstrated to involve the identification of the presence of a pathogen, and the instigation of collection of a sample for more detailed analyses for confirmation.
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