Assessment of Unaccounted-for Water in Municipal Water Networks Using GIS and Modeling
This chapter presents a study to calculate “Unaccounted-for Water” (UFW) due to high pressure in water networks. Unaccounted-for Water (UFW) including the physical and non-physical loss of water in the network is one of the parameters that managers should consider when considering the crisis of water supply in cities and the need to improve network efficiency.
Increasing the number of consumers at the same time as increasing limitations of water resources requires network optimization management. Steps to increase network efficiency with GIS and modeling include several tasks. First, all of network data including spatial and attributed information was stored in a GIS system. Then using a specific extension tool (such as Hydrogen), this data was imported into the EPANET program. After hydraulic calculations to identify high-pressure zones in the network, a layer in the GIS was created to represent these zones.
To verify the general results of the model, we used information that was collected during real incidents in the network.
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