A Continuous Simulation Approach for Separate Sewered Areas
The demand for large-scale watershed and sewershed planning studies in the United States has been increasing steadily over the past ten years. In large part, the demand is driven by major government programs regulating combined sewer overflows (CSO), sanitary sewer overflows (SSO), and storm water discharges. The implementation of these regulatory programs often results in local or regional public agencies embarking upon large multi-year studies requiring a comprehensive inventory of watershed and sewershed infrastructure, a characterization of the hydrologic and hydraulic function of that infrastructure, and analyses into the mechanisms by which pollutants are discharged into receiving waters. Significant monetary investments are made into comprehensive field investigations and surveys, hydrologic and hydraulic models, and regional facilities planning to develop and implement short- and long-term CSO and SSO control strategies.
Accurately determining the quantity of extraneous flow that enters public sewers and private service laterals is a critical component of these comprehensive studies. The amount of rainfall dependent inflow and infiltration (RDII) entering the separate sewer systems varies from site to site and event to event as precipitation over a sewershed may produce different RDII responses within the sewers at different times of the year. The Lower Ohio hydrologic and hydraulic modeling project in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania provided a unique opportunity to improve upon the accuracy and reliability of model simulations by incorporating monthly variations in sewer system responses to rainfall events. The completed analyses and model implementation were successful in quantifying site specific and seasonal variations observed in RDII responses.
This chapter will discuss the innovative technical refinement of accounting for site specific, seasonal variations in sewer system responses to rainfall events in hydrologic/hydraulic modeling efforts.
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