Calibration of PCSWMM to Estimate Metals, PCBs and HCB in CSOs from an Industrial Sewershed.
The Buffalo River, New York, is one of forty-three "Areas of Concern" identified by the International Joint Commission as exhibiting environmental impairment. The impairments identified for the Buffalo River in a level I Remedial Action Plan (New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), 1989) included: restrictions on fish and wildlife consumption; fish tumors and other deformities; degradation of benthos; restrictions on disposal of dredged sediment; and loss of fish and wildlife habitat. In addition, it was noted that degradation of fish and wildlife populations and bird or animal deformities and/or reproduction problems were likely. The NYSDEC (1989) identified multiple possible pollutant sources to the Buffalo River, including: combined sewer overflows; direct industrial discharges; leaching from inactive hazardous waste sites; water column interaction with historically contaminated bed sediment; and upstream point and nonpoint sources such as municipal wastewater treatment plants and agricultural runoff.
A mass balance evaluation of pollutant level dynamics and loadings within the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC) has been initiated under the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's ARCS (Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment) Program. An objective of the mass balance evaluation is to apply a combination of hydrodynamic, sediment transport and chemical fate models to estimate pollutant movement through the lower Buffalo River (Wang and Martin, 1991). lie modelling results will be used to guide the selection of remediation strategies for the river. The ability of the chemical fate model to accurately reflect pollutant dynamics within the river is predicated, in part, on reliable estimates of pollutant loads to the river from the various sources.
Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) are a possible source of organic compounds, metals and bacteria to the Buffalo River and this chapter communicates initial results of an ongoing CSO evaluation. A personal computer (PC) version of the Stormwater Management Model (PCSWMM) is being used for planning level estimates of overflow quantity to the river. Model calibration for overflow quantity estimates and characterization of overflow quality from a major outfall servicing a large, industrialized sewershed are discussed in this chapter. Model sensitivity, the range of calibrated parametric values, model inaccuracies and pollutant level characterization also are discussed in terms of using modelled results for planning level evaluations of CSO impacts. Ultimately, the CSO pollutant loading estimates will be incorporated into the mass balance evaluation of pollutant level dynamics for the Buffalo River.
Levels of total PCBs, HCB, Mn, V and Cu are examined in this chapter. Organochlorine compounds such as PCBs and HCB are of concern as widespread, persistent and harmful contaminants in view of environmental quality and health (Safe, 1987; Tanabe, 1988; Loganathan et al., 1990; Loganathan and Kannan, 1991). The metals, Mn, V and Cu were chosen for evaluation because elevated levels may have a negative impact on animal, fish and human health (e.g. Irvine et al., in press; Forstner and Wittmann, 1983), data are available from past and ongoing Buffalo River studies (e.g. NYSDEC, 1989) and because of limitations on the types of elements that can be determined by short-lived instrumental neutron activation analysis, the analytical methodology available for this study.
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